ISIS attack may spur scores of executions in Iraq

Pressured by public opinion, the government tries to show strength.
Monday 25/01/2021
A suspected ISIS member looks out from a prison cell in Sulaimaniya , Iraq. (REUTERS)
A suspected ISIS member looks out from a prison cell in Sulaimaniya , Iraq. (REUTERS)

Baghdad – Rights defenders fear Iraq may give the green light to a spree of executions of convicted jihadists in a show of strength, days after a deadly suicide attack in Baghdad.

On Sunday, an official from Iraq’s presidency said more than 340 execution orders “for terrorism or criminal acts” were ready to be carried out.

“We are continuing to sign off on more,” said the official, speaking on condition of anonymity.

The orders were disclosed after twin suicide attacks claimed by ISIS on Thursday killed at least 32 people in a crowded open-air Baghdad market.

The blasts were a jolting reminder of the persistent threat posed by the jihadists, despite the government declaring victory over them in late 2017.

The official, along with judicial sources, could not provide additional details on when the executions may take place or if they included foreigners convicted of belonging to ISIS.

A 2005 law carries the death penalty for anyone convicted of “terrorism,” which can include membership of an extremist group even if they are not convicted of any specific acts.

Rights groups have warned that executions were being used for political reasons.

“Leaders resort to announcements of mass executions simply to signal to the public that they’re taking… (these issues) seriously,” said Belkis Wille, senior crisis and conflict researcher at Human Rights Watch.

“The death penalty is used as a political tool more than anything else,” she said..

In mid-2018, outgoing Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi announced 13 executions under the Counter-Terror Law, and for the first time authorities published pictures of the hangings.

That came after ISIS killed eight civilians.

– Fourth place –

Since the official declaration of victory over ISIS, Iraq’s courts have sentenced hundreds to death for crimes perpetrated during the jihadists’ 2014 seizure of around a third of the country and their brutal three-year hold over cities including Mosul.

Cuffs are seen in front of cells housing ISIS members at a counter-terrorism prison in Sulaimaniya, Iraq. (REUTERS)
Cuffs are seen in front of cells housing ISIS members at a counter-terrorism prison in Sulaimaniya, Iraq. (REUTERS)

But only a small proportion of the sentences have been carried out, as they must be approved by the president.

Iraqi President Barham Salih, who has held the post since 2018, is known to be personally against capital punishment, and has resisted signing execution orders in the past.

Some Iraqis took to social media to demand tougher action from Saleh after Thursday’s attack, accusing him of “not carrying out the sentences” and risking a prison break.

Despite Salih’s moderating influence, Iraq in 2019 carried out the fourth highest number of executions among nations worldwide, after China, Iran and Saudi Arabia, according to Amnesty International.

Iraq carried out 100 executions that year — one out of every seven worldwide.

Judicial sources told AFP at least 30 executions took place in 2020.

They include 21 men convicted of “terrorism” and executed at the notorious Nasiriyah prison in November.

The move sparked condemnations from the United Nations, which described the news as “deeply troubling” and called on Iraq to halt any further planned executions.

– ‘Limited options’ –

Rights groups accuse Iraq’s justice system of corruption, carrying out rushed trials on circumstantial evidence and failing to allow the accused a proper defence.

Iraq’s government has declined to provide figures on detention centres or prisoners, including how many are facing terrorism-related charges, although some studies estimate 20,000 are being held for purported ISIS links.

Ali Bayati, a leading member of Iraq’s Human Rights Commission, said the country had “limited options.”

“Capital punishment is part of the Iraqi legal system — and we do not have real rehabilitation centres,” he said.

“We lack clear guarantees and real transparency in the interrogation and ruling sessions, and in allowing human rights organisations to play their role.”