Iraq’s Hatra: A World Heritage Site in crossfire of war

Sunday 13/11/2016
A 2003 file picture shows the Hellenistic Temple of Mrn amid the remains of the ancient city of Hatra in the desert area in north-west Iraq, between Mosul and Samarra, where the Hellenistic and Roman architecture blends with eastern decorative features.

Baghdad - The ancient city of Hatra withstood Roman inva­sions nearly 2,000 years ago and decades of more recent war and instabili­ty in Iraq but then jihadists marked it for destruction.
The Islamic State (ISIS) vandal­ised Hatra, 110km south-west of Mosul, and is reported to still have a presence in the area, which may put the famed archaeological site in the line of fire as Iraqi forces fight to drive the jihadists back.
Hatra, known as Al-Hadhr in Ar­abic, was established in the second or third century BC and became a religious and trading centre under the Parthian empire.
It was surrounded by two walls — one of earth and another of stone that was dotted with towers. The fortifications helped it withstand sieges by the forces of two Roman emperors: Trajan in 166AD and Septimius Severus in 198. Hatra finally succumbed to Ar­dashir I, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, a few decades later.
The city, however, remained well preserved over the centuries that followed. The site was exca­vated in the early 20th century and again from the early 1950s. Two decades later, Hatra left its mark on pop culture as the location for the opening of horror film The Ex­orcist in 1973.
In addition to its imposing for­tifications, Hatra was home to magnificent temples that blended Eastern and Western architecture. It was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
Like many other archaeological sites in Iraq, access to Hatra has been limited by instability and cy­cles of violence that followed the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq.
In June 2014, the Islamic State (ISIS) overran Mosul and other territory in Iraq and carried out a seemingly endless series of atroci­ties.
Seeking to continue to shock the world and remain the fo­cus of attention, ISIS began tar­geting Iraqi herit­age sites as well as brutally killing people. The jihadists frame the destruction as a religiously mandated elimination of idols but have no qualms about selling smaller artefacts to fund their operations.
They ransacked the Mosul mu­seum, blew up the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud and came for Hatra.
ISIS released a video in April 2015 showing militants knocking sculp­tures off the walls of a build­ing, shooting at them with an assault rifle and hack­ing away at a statue with a pickaxe.
The extent of the dam­age at the site is unclear but it may be in for further destruction if fighting breaks out in the area during Iraq’s operation to retake Mosul and the sur­rounding Nineveh province.
Agence France- Presse