Growing number of Algerians tempted by illegal migration to Europe
ALGIERS--Attempts by young Algerians at illegal migration have drawn much less attention than those of their neighbours but that does not make the temptation to flee the oil-rich country much less of an issue.
“Here, I don’t exist — I die little by little,” said Hamid, a young Algerian, his gaze fixed on Mediterranean waters he sees as his route to a better future.
“My only hope is to leave for Europe.”
Like thousands of citizens from the Maghreb, the 28-year-old Algerian has chosen to risk his life by crossing the Mediterranean on a makeshift boat.
With the coronavirus pandemic further squeezing already scant economic opportunities, Algerians along with Tunisians, Moroccans and others from the Maghreb are more determined than ever to reach Europe.
The deadly nature of their gamble was underlined again this month when 60 people, mostly women and children, drowned off the Tunisian coast.
But this has not put Hamid off.
An engineer by profession, he has work, but is forced to live with his parents because his salary is not enough to rent a separate apartment.
His friends Djamel and Mohamed are also set on making a seaborne bid from Annaba, a northeastern city that is a popular launchpad for illicit crossings to Europe.
The migrants are known locally as “harraga”, “those who burn” — a reference to successful travellers setting their identity papers alight upon reaching their chosen destination, to avoid repatriation.
A protest movement that started early last year and quickly toppled longtime president Abdelaziz Bouteflika had sparked young people’s hopes for a better future at home.
But as the unprecedented peaceful movement has been ever more harshly repressed and the oil-dependent economy has tanked on low crude prices, illegal departures have ticked up again.
Djamel said that with people being arrested for simply “posting opinions on Facebook”, making for the seas “has become a question of survival”.
Algerian defence ministry figures show authorities arrested 1,433 people trying to depart illegally from Algeria’s shores in the first five months of this year — more than three times the figure for the same period of 2019.
The monthly numbers of detentions dropped dramatically from 828 in January to just 16 in March, as the country’s coronavirus outbreak kicked in.
But Kouceila Zerguine, a lawyer based in Annaba, is convinced that actual migrant departures from Algeria are anyway far higher than the official figures.
“You have to multiply that number by 20,” because you have to account for those who actually complete their trip without being intercepted, Zerguine said.
Sociologist Mohamed Mohamedi said the Hirak protest movement had offered citizens brief “hope of shaping a life” in Algeria.
But, he said, “the return of the ‘harraga’ is due to the return of hopelessness”.
Mahrez Bouich, a professor of philosophy and politics in Bejaia in northeastern Algeria, agreed that the lack of hoped-for changes, along with economic stagnation, were to blame.
The pandemic has “exacerbated social inequalities and injustices”, Bouich said.
Despite a 2009 law that punishes migrants intercepted at sea with six months in prison (five years for smugglers), growing numbers of Algerians are attempting the crossing — often more than once.
Aboard the boats are doctors, nurses, policemen, the unemployed and entire families, lawyer Zerguine said, arguing that the phenomenon cannot be explained by unemployment alone.
Those who decide to leave “want to live with the times, they want more freedom and dignity”.
Mohamed, the prospective migrant, said Algeria’s social conservatism had overlooked young people.
“My grandparents are more open in spirit than my parents — it’s mad,” he said.
“Society has regressed and I refuse to regress with it.”
Young Algerians share in the same type of disillusionment felt by their Tunisian neighbours since their 2011 uprising. Clandestine departures from Tunisian soil towards Europe quadrupled in the first five months of the year compared to 2019, according to the UN refugee agency UNHCR.